12 Jan 2017

IPNI SEAP Quarterly Newsletter 2016 - 4

Quarter 4, 2016


El Niño, Fertilizer Application and Cocoa Yield in Sulawesi, Indonesia in 2014/15
In 2015, an unusually strong El Niño had been brewing in the Pacific Ocean. Fishermen of Northern Peru used the term to describe a warm southward coastal current that occasionally develops around December. Now meteorologists use the label to describe large increases in sea surface temperatures in the eastern and central equatorial Pacific that occur at irregular intervals. Affected by the El Niño, parts of Indonesia tend to experience drought. Figure 1 below indicates with bright colors, areas that received the most rainfall in September 2015, with low rainfall in blue areas and no rain gray areas. Sulawesi is almost entirely gray. Similarly, the Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resource website indicated for the Soppeng area of Sulawesi a much lower cumulative rainfall in 2015 (1350 mm) than in 2014 (1656 mm) (NASA 2016).

Figure 1: Satellite observations of rainfall over Indonesia, captured by the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission for September 2015. (Source: Joshua Stevens, Jesse Allen, NASA Earth Observatory, Precipitation Processing System of GPM’s Science Team, accessed in September 2016 at www.nasa.gov).

Since 2012, IPNI and Cocoa Care have engaged with Indonesian smallholder farmers to understand the impact of good agricultural practices and complementary 4R nutrition on cocoa bean yields. One group of 16 farmers collaborated with IPNI and Cocoa Care in 2014 and 2015. Farms were divided into two equal sized parts. In one half, good agricultural practices without additional fertilizer nutrients (GAP) were implemented, while good agricultural practices with 4R consistent nutrient management (GAPN) were imposed in the other half. GAP involves regular pruning, weeding, and phyto-sanitation. In 4R Nutrient Stewardship the right source of fertilizer is used, at the right rate, the right time, and in the right place (IPNI 2012). Our fertilizer recommendation was developed based on the replacement of exported nutrients by a target yield of 2 tons ha-1. Inorganic fertilizer nutrients were selected, because compost was limited. They were applied twice a year with the onset of the rainy season (December / January, July / August). Nutrients were buried in four, 20 cm deep holes with 10 cm diameter, equally spaced around the tree, along the edge of the canopy to match root growth.

Table 1 below shows the average dry cocoa bean yields for the group. As expected, GAPN performed better than GAP in both years. In 2014 the complementary fertilizer translated into 230 kg of beans more per hectare, about 25%, than good agricultural practices only. In 2015, this difference had grown to more than 280 kg per hectare, or 34% more yield with GAPN. The comparison across the two years indicates the influence that El Niño had on the yield. The fields that were only managed with good agricultural practices had 23% yield reduction in 2015, while yields in those farms that received GAP and complementary nutrition, dropped by only 12%. These results highlight impressively the role adequate nutrition plays in conditions of water stress.

Table 1: Group average dry cocoa bean yields (kg per hectare) for a group of 16 farmers who worked with the IPNI Cocoa Care project in 2014 and 2015 in the Soppeng area of Sulawesi, Indonesia. Yields are given for good agricultural practices without additional fertilizer nutrients (GAP), and GAP with 4R consistent nutrient management (GAPN). Differences (Diff.) are measured in kg per hectare and percentage (%).
Diff. in kg / ha-1
Diff. in %
696.4 kg / ha-1
928.0 kg / ha-1
533.2 kg / ha-1
817.2 kg / ha-1
Diff. in kg / ha-1
Diff. in %

IPNI. 2012. 4R Plant Nutrition Manual: A manual for improving the management of plant nutrition. Eds: T.W. Bruulsema, P.E. Fixen, and G.E. Sulewski. International Plant Nutrition Institute, Norcross, GA, USA.

NASA. 2016. Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resource (POWER), Climatology Resource for Agroclimatology. Accessed September 2016. http://power.larc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/cgiwrap/solar/agro.cgi.

4R Nutrient Stewardship in Oil Palm
IPNI SEAP organized a 3-day course on 4R Nutrient Stewardship in Oil Palm on 15-17 November 2016 at the IPNI SEAP office in Penang. The course was attended by 9 participants (photo below) from Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia: four from PT. Meroke Tetap Jaya, three from Univanich Palm Oil PCL, one from Advanced Agriecological Research Sdn. Bhd. and one from IPNI-Göttingen University on board. The course was completed successfully, and received excellent reviews.

IPNI Webinar Series 2017
IPNI is hosting a range of plant nutrition-related webinars this year. For January, Dr. Mirasol Pampolino from the Southeast Asia Program will be hosting a webinar “Fertilizer Application in Cassava: is it necessary?” Discussions will touch on the principles behind cassava fertilization and review the 4Rs of nutrient stewardship - applying the right source of nutrients at the right rate, right time, and in the right place. Register for this free webinar dated January 18, 2017 at 4 – 5 pm Singapore time (UTC/ GMT +8 hours) here.


Cambodia Rice Sector ‘Crisis’ Patched, But Not Fixed
“Cambodia Minister of Agriculture Veng Sakhon has delivered a stinging broadside to the country’s agriculture and business sectors in the wake of what can only be described as the world’s shortest ‘crisis’. Cambodia rice sector was said to be in ‘crisis’. The tumbling price of rice in Battambang saw farmers take to the streets as prices tumbled from about $250 per ton in mid-August to $192 in early September 2016. With just 10 percent of the rainy season crop harvested and millers saying they did not have funds to buy rice, the future for the economically vital Cambodia rice sector was looking bleak. This despite the Cambodian Rice Federation (CRF) announcing in June that the government had agreed to disperse up to $30 million in emergency loans for the purchase of paddy rice from farmers this season.”

Source: AECNews, October 5, 2016

How To Double Income of India’s Smallholder Farmers
“In an effort to boost the agriculture sector, the Indian government has set an ambitious goal to double farmers’ income by 2022. In doing so, it has unveiled strategies ranging from irrigation to crop insurance. But if the food value chain is to undergo true transformation, it needs to move from a production-driven system to one driven by demand, one that increasingly connects consumers with producers.”

Source: World Economic Forum, October 6, 2016

Experts Warn Mekong Delta Agriculture, Livelihoods Face Serious Threats
“The effects of the severe drought that the El Niño weather phenomenon—exacerbated by climate change—delivered to Southeast Asia this year will be felt for months, if not years, to come in the economically vital Mekong Delta, environmentalists and United Nations experts said. They also said Vietnam and other Mekong states must brace for an increase in extreme weather events, bolstering early disaster preparedness and response activities to mitigate the potentially devastating effect impact on tens of millions of people and natural resources.”

Source: Radio Free Asia, October 27, 2016

Timor-Leste Forms Coffee Association to Boost Farmer Livelihoods
“Coffee is Timor-Leste’s largest non-oil export, and provides a primary source of income to approximately a quarter of Timorese households, most of whom live in poverty. Well-known within the coffee industry as the origin of the Hibrido de Timor, a prized variety for its disease resistance and cup characteristics, there is a lack of organization within the island. The formation of the Timor-Leste Coffee Association sees its members working together for the coffee industry to increase the volume and improve the value of coffees sold for export and domestic consumption.”

Source: C & CI, November 2016

Vietnam Rice Industry Faces Threat From Climate Change, Mekong Dam
“Vietnam’s government is banking on agricultural reforms in its main rice producing region to meet the challenges posed by climate change and disrupted water flow on the Mekong River. The reforms aim to produce higher quality climate-adapted rice, and boost alternative crops to ensure sustainability in the Mekong Delta, home to 18 million of Vietnam’s 94 million people.”

Source: Voa news, November 1, 2016

Vietnam Banana Exports See Upbeat Outlook
“Vietnamese banana exports have soared in recent years, with hundreds of tonnes shipped overseas per day at times. A small amount of Vietnamese bananas arrived in Japan earlier this year. The fruit was sold in Don Quijote stores in late April and AEON shopping malls in early September."

Source: Vietnam Breaking News, November 4, 2016

Indonesia Refuses to Import Maize by 2018
“It is noted that to achieve self-sufficiency in maize in Indonesia it is necessary to increase the sowing area under grain from the current 4.4 million to 7 million hectares. In addition, in order to increase the gross harvest of corn is planned to be allocated from the state budget additional funds for the mechanization of farms and the development of irrigation systems, which will also help farmers to increase the profitability of production.”

Source: Agro2b, November 29, 2016

BigData Earth Develops New Location Profile Report for Worldwide Agricultural Land
“Modern Earth observation technologies (spaceborne, airborne and terrestrial) are increasingly deployed to capture environmental attributes about agricultural land and assets. Big data collected by various sensors and the information extracted are critical for the growing AgTech and precision agriculture industry. Many baseline terrain and environmental attributes for agricultural land should be systematically and digitally catalogued in the first place. BigData Earth develops new location profile reports for worldwide agricultural land, by including the following site-specific components: natural colour, colour-infrared, and NDVI imagery; terrain profiles and topographic variations; vegetation cover and others.”

Source: Earth Imaging Journal, December 9, 2016


Spatial Variation of Attainable Yield and Fertilizer Requirements for Maize at the Regional Scale in China
Abstract: Understanding attainable yield, soil nutrient supply capacity and fertilizer requirements in current intensive maize (Zea mays L.) production at regional and national scales in China is essential in making informed decisions on policy, research and investment. In this study, results of a large number of on-farm experiments (n = 5893) were collected for the period 2001–2015 from the main maize production areas in China to study the spatial variability of attainable yield, relative yield (RY) and fertilizer requirements by coupling geographical information system with the Nutrient Expert for Hybrid Maize system. We found strong spatial variation in attainable yield across all sites, with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 25.5%. Mapping the spatial variability of RY indicated that 85.3%, 79.3% and 72.5% of RY for nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) of the study areas ranged from 0.68 to 0.87, from 0.83 to 0.95 and from 0.84 to 0.94, respectively. The RY was higher in North Central China than other regions. The RY can reveal the spatial heterogeneity of soil nutrient supply capacity, and has been integrated into crop management strategies for calculating fertilizer requirements using the Nutrient Expert® for Hybrid Maize decision sup-port system. Overall, there were large variations in N, P and K fertilizer requirements across all sites with CVs of 19.5%, 31.6% and 35.0%, respectively, and the ranges of 150–210 kg N ha−1, 50–90 kg P2O5ha−1 and 50–110 kg K2O ha−1 accounted for 72.0%, 81.7% and 81.5% of the study areas, respectively. The results of 605 field experiments in 10 provinces during 2010–2014 showed that the Nutrient Expert® for Hybrid Maize system not only reduced N and P fertilizer application rates by 31.6% and 15.5%, respectively, but also increased maize yield by 3.3% compared with farmers’ current practices. The combination of the fertilizer recommendation system and geographical information system with a large database of field trials provides a useful tool to identify spatial variation in fertilizer requirements in fields and regions, and contributes towards more efficient and effective fertilizer management. – Xinpeng Xua, Ping He, Jiajia Zhang, Mirasol F. Pampolino, Adrian M. Johnston, Wei Zhou.

Source: Field Crops Research, 203: 8 – 15 (2017)

RSPO PalmGHG, ISCC and ISPO GHG Calculator – A Comparative Analysis
Excerpt from Abstract: “This paper presents the results of a comparative analysis of three commonly used greenhouse gas calculation methodology by oil palm growers in Indonesia, i.e., the PalmGHG, ISCC and ISPO calculators. The calculators each have a different calculation approach which depends on specific requirements.
Testing the calculators using the same input data showed that the result from the RSPO PalmGHG is generally higher that the ISCC and ISPO calculator. This is caused by the different carbon stock and emission factor default values used in the calculators and by the different calculation approach.”

Source: The Planter, Kuala Lumpur, 92 (1083): 379–399 (2016)

Limited Morphological, Physiological and Genetic Diversity of Phytophthora palmivora from Cocoa in Papua New Guinea
Abstract: In Papua New Guinea (PNG) cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is one of the most important cash crops grown in the tropical lowland and island regions. As in most cocoa-growing areas, Phytophthora black pod and canker cause significant yield losses. Cocoa breeding activities in PNG are focussed in East New Britain province where disease control recommendations are also developed. This study tested the hypothesis that there was no diversity in the Phytophthora palmivora population causing black pod on cocoa by characterizing the variation in pathogen populations within and between the five major cocoa growing areas. Diseased pods were sampled hierarchically from the five locations and additional isolates were collected from soil, stem and leaf lesions, or retrieved from culture collections. Morphological characters showed continuous variation within the range described for P. palmivora. Genetic analysis revealed that the isolates belonged to one dominant clonal lineage, with restricted distributions of several other subpopulations. Lowest diversity was found in the geographically isolated Karkar Island and East Sepik province. Soil isolates showed greater genetic diversity than isolates from cocoa lesions. As much variation was found intra-farm as inter-farm or inter-province. Both mating types were detected although no strong evidence of sexual recombination was detected. Our analysis revealed limited geographic, temporal or host specialization, suggesting continuous selection for pathogenicity from a genetic pool of P. palmivora. These findings have significant implications on the deployment of cocoa genotypes, enforcement of inter-Province quarantine and sustainable disease management strategies. – J. Saul Maora, E.C.Y. Liew and D.I. Guest.

Source: Plant Pathology, 66: 124 – 130 (2017)

N & P Sustainability: Sustainability Matters
“The efficient use of resources also goes to the heart of the debate about fertilizer sustainability. The statistics on average nutrient use efficiency – the proportion of nutrients actually used by crops in the first year after application - are stark. For fertilizer applied to major cereal crops, nitrogen efficiency is around 40 – 65%, potassium efficiency in the region of 30 – 50% and phosphorus, just 15 – 25%.”

Source: Sustainability Indicator Fertilizer International Magazine, 10: 32 (2016)

Testing Local Cocoa Selections in Three Provinces in Sulawesi: (i) Productivity and Resistance to Cocoa Pod Borer and Phytophthora Pod Rot (Black Pod)
Abstract: Trials were established on smallholder cocoa farms in three provinces in Sulawesi to assess productivity and constitutive responses of local cocoa clones to cocoa pod borer (CPB) and Phytophthora pod rot (Ppr) in different environmental situations. Twelve clones per trial (local farmer-assisted selections or clones produced by hybridisation programs in East Java and Malaysia) were tested in the districts of Pinrang, Polewali-Mandar and North Kolaka, including four standards common to the trials: the Malaysian clone, PBC123, and three selections from Sulawesi farms. The clones were evaluated from the time they started fruiting in 2010 (about two years after planting) for two years during which time chemical pesticides were not applied. Otherwise farms were managed according to recommended practices, including harvesting each fortnight, fertiliser application and heavy and light pruning, depending on the season. Butter fat content was generally lower than 50% but was higher in three local selections in Pinrang, M04, RB and Panimbu Red. While strongly dependent on genotype, fat and shell content and pod values in the common standards showed some variation between sites. The bean size and fat content of PBC123 was low, but this clone yielded better than most of the clones tested. For the common standards, yield estimates obtained from average yield per tree were higher in Pinrang (735–1100 tons/ha/annum) than in N. Kolaka (342–894 ton/ha/annum) or Polewali-Mandar (485–899 tons/ha/annum) indicating a marked site-effect. The number of flowers produced was higher in the common standards in Pinrang. Soil parameters including pH and exchangeable calcium, magnesium and potassium were higher in Pinrang than in Polman, although both sites were deficient in soil nitrogen and organic carbon. Lower average CPB infestation rates in ripe pods for the two-year evaluation period occurred in Pinrang (48–66%) and Polewali-Mandar (19–68%) than in N. Kolaka (77–80%). In most of the clones, total and severe CPB incidence decreased during the high pod season but some selections, such as M04 and TR01, maintained a low total and severe CPB incidence in both the low and high pod seasons, indicating partial resistance. In the ripe pods of common standards, the highest average Ppr incidence (ranging from 10 to 14%) occurred in N. Kolaka, which had a higher annual rainfall than the other sites. In ripe pods in the Pinrang trial, Geni J, M06 and Panimbu Red had a low Ppr incidence (4.4–4.8%) while M04 was Ppr-susceptible (23%). Incidence of Helopeltis spp. was high in the immature pods of some clones (exceeding 30% of the total harvest in M01 and Geni J in Pinrang). The results show that the performance of clones is affected by the locality in which they are grown, as well as their genotype, indicating the importance of testing clones under different environmental conditions. While the trials confirmed the efficacy of farmer-assisted selection, they also indicated that clones resistant to CPB, were susceptible to Ppr or other pests/diseases, and vice versa. For example, local selection, M04, was highly susceptible to Ppr, yet resistant to CPB. Therefore, the results indicate the importance of efforts to screen the progeny of hybrid crosses that combine resistance and yield traits. – P. McMahon, H. Purung, S. Lambert, S. Mulia, Nurlaila, A.W. Susilo, E. Sulistyowati, Sri Sukamto, M. Israel, A. Saftar, A. Amir, A. Purwantara, A. Iswanto, D. Guest, P. Keane.

Source: Crop Protection, 70: 28 – 39 (2015)

Can Intensification Reduce Emission Intensity of Biofuel Through Optimized Fertilizer Use? Theory and the Case of Oil Palm in Indonesia
Abstract: Closing yield gaps through higher fertilizer use increases direct greenhouse gas emissions but shares the burden over a larger production volume. Net greenhouse gas (GHG) footprints per unit product under agricultural intensification vary depending on the context, scale and accounting method. Life cycle analysis of footprints includes attributable emissions due to (i) land conversion (‘fixed cost’); (ii) external inputs used (‘variable cost’); (iii) crop production (‘agronomic efficiency’); and (iv) postharvest transport and processing (‘proportional’ cost). The interplay between fixed and variable costs results in a nuanced opportunity for intermediate levels of intensification to minimize footprints. The fertilizer level that minimizes the footprint may differ from the economic optimum. The optimization problem can be solved algebraically for quadratic crop fertilizer response equations. We applied this theory to data of palm oil production and fertilizer use from 23 plantations across the Indonesian production range. The current EU threshold requiring at least 35% emission saving for biofuel use can never be achieved by palm oil if produced: (i) on peat soils, or (ii) on mineral soils where the C debt due to conversion is larger than 20 Mg C ha-1, if the footprint is calculated using an emission ratio of N2O–N/N fertilizer of 4%. At current fertilizer price levels in Indonesia, the economically optimized N fertilizer rate is 344–394 kg N ha-1, while the reported mean N fertilizer rate is 141 kg N ha-1 yr-1 and rates of 74–277 kg N ha-1 would minimize footprints, for a N2O–N/N fertilizer ratio of 4–1%, respectively. At a C debt of 30 Mg C ha-1, these values are 200–310 kg N ha-1. Sustainable weighting of ecology and economics would require a higher fertilizer/yield price ratio, depending on C debt. Increasing production by higher fertilizer use from current 67% to 80% of attainable yields would not decrease footprints in current production conditions. – M. van Noordwijk, N. Khasanah and S. Dewi.

Source: Global Change Biology Bioenergy (2016)

Fertiliser Requirements for Balanced Nutrition of Cassava Across Eight Locations in West Africa
Abstract: Insufficient and unbalanced fertiliser use widens cassava yield gaps. We assessed the spatial variability of optimal fertiliser requirements of cassava for enhanced nutrient use efficiency and increased yield using the balanced nutrition approach of the QUEFTS model. Two datasets comprised of five fertiliser experiments conducted at eight locations across Southern Togo, Southern Ghana and Northern Ghana from 2007 to 2012 were used. The ratio of storage roots dry matter yield over the sum of available N, P and K expressed in crop nutrient equivalent from the soil and nutrient inputs was used as a proxy to estimate nutrient use efficiency. Nutrient use efficiencies of 20.5 and 31.7 kg storage roots dry matter per kilo crop nutrient equivalent were achieved at balanced nutrition at harvest index (HI) values of 0.50 and 0.65, respectively. N, P and K supplies of 16.2, 2.7 and 11.5 kg at an HI of 0.50, and 10.5, 1.9 and 8.4 kg at an HI of 0.65 were required to produce 1000 kg of storage roots dry matter. The corresponding optimal NPK supply ratios are 6.0–1.0–4.2 and 5.3–1.0–4.2. Nutrient use efficiencies decreased above yields of 77–93% of the maximum. Evaluation of the performance of blanket fertiliser rates recommended by national research services for cassava production resulted in average benefit:cost ratios of 2.4 ± 0.9, which will be unattractive to many farmers compared to 3.8 ± 1.1 for the balanced fertiliser rates. The indigenous soil supply of nutrients revealed that, at balanced nutrition, K was the most limiting nutrient to achieve storage roots yields up to 8 Mg dry matter ha-1 at most sites, whereas N and P were needed at greater yields. Dry weight of storage roots measured on the control plots in our researcher managed experiment ranged from 5.6 to 12.2 Mg ha-1, and were larger than the average weight in farmers’ fields in West Africa of 4 Mg ha-1. Substantial yield increase could be attained in the region with improved crop management and fertiliser requirements formulation on the basis of balanced nutrition. - K.S. Ezui, A.C. Franke, A. Mando, B.D.K. Ahiabor, F.M. Tetteh, J. Sogbedji, B.H. Janssen, K.E. Giller.

Source: Field Crops Research, 185: 69 – 78 (2016)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Intensity of Global Croplands
Abstract: Stabilizing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from croplands as agricultural demand grows is a critical component of climate change mitigation. Emissions intensity metrics—including carbon dioxide equivalent emissions per kilocalorie produced (‘production intensity’)—can highlight regions, management practices, and crops as potential foci for mitigation. Yet the spatial and crop-wise distribution of emissions intensity has been uncertain. Here, we develop global crop-specific circa 2000 estimates of GHG emissions and GHG intensity in high spatial detail, reporting the effects of rice paddy management, peatland draining, and nitrogen (N) fertilizer on CH4, CO2 and N2O emissions. Global mean production intensity is 0.16 Mg CO2e M kcal−1, yet certain cropping practices contribute disproportionately to emissions. Peatland drainage (3.7 Mg CO2e M kcal−1)—concentrated in Europe and Indonesia—accounts for 32% of these cropland emissions despite peatlands producing just 1.1% of total crop kilocalories. Methane emissions from rice (0.58 Mg CO2e M kcal-1), a crucial food staple supplying 15% of total crop kilocalories, contribute 48% of cropland emissions, with outsized production intensity in Vietnam. In contrast, N2O emissions from N fertilizer application (0.033 Mg CO2e M kcal−1) generate only 20% of cropland emissions. We find that current total GHG emissions are largely unrelated to production intensity across crops and countries. Climate mitigation policies should therefore be directed to locations where crops have both high emissions and high intensities. – K.M. Carlson, J.S. Gerber, N.D. Mueller, M. Herrero , G.K. MacDonald, K.A. Brauman , P. Havlik, C.S. O’Connell, J.A. Johnson, S. Saatchi and P.C. West.

Source: Nature Climate Change (Nov 2016)

Land-use Choices Follow Profitability at the Expense of Ecological Functions in Indonesian Smallholder Landscapes
Abstract: Smallholder-dominated agricultural mosaic landscapes are highlighted as model production systems that deliver both economic and ecological goods in tropical agricultural landscapes, but trade-offs underlying current land-use dynamics are poorly known. Here, using the most comprehensive quantification of land-use change and associated bundles of ecosystem functions, services and economic benefits to date, we show that Indonesian smallholders predominantly choose farm portfolios with high economic productivity but low ecological value. The more profitable oil palm and rubber monocultures replace forests and agroforests critical for maintaining above- and below-ground ecological functions and the diversity of most taxa. Between the monocultures, the higher economic performance of oil palm over rubber comes with the reliance on fertilizer inputs and with increased nutrient leaching losses. Strategies to achieve an ecological-economic balance and a sustainable management of tropical smallholder landscapes must be prioritized to avoid further environmental degradation. – Y. Clough and colleagues.

Source: Nature Communications 7: 13137 (2016)


We have also updated our SEAP Reference Database with references dealing mainly with the following topics: oil palm, cocoa, plant nutrients and coffee. For a complete listing of these references, please click here.


Press Release
IPNI Southeast Asia Program has disseminated the following press releases in the fourth quarter of 2016:
Webinar Series
If you have missed any of the IPNI Southeast Asia Program's webinar in the fourth quarter of 2016, you may still watch the recordings here:


Oils and Fats International Congress 2016
19 - 21 October 2016
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Webinar - Fertilizer application in Cassava: Is it necessary?
18 January 2017

Frontiers of Potassium Conference
25 - 27 January 2017
Rome, Italy

International Palm Oil Conference (INPOC) / International Palm Oil Exhibition (INPALME)
22 - 23 March 2017
Medan, Indonesia

The 7th International Conference & Exhibition on Palm Oil (ICE-PO 2017)
12 - 14 April 2017
Jakarta, Indonesia

PALMEX Philippines 2017
27 - 28 April 2017
Davao, Philippines

13th ISP National Seminar 2017 (NATSEM 2017)
17 - 19 July 2017

Malaysia Palm Oil Expo (MAPEX) / Malaysia International Palm Oil Conference (MIPOC) 2017
18 - 20 July 2017
Sibu, Sabah, Malaysia

PALMEX Thailand 2017
17 – 18 August 2017
Surat Thani, Thailand

PALMEX Indonesia 2017
3 – 5 October 2017
Medan, Sumatra Utara, Indonesia

International Palm Oil Congress and Exhibition (PIPOC) 2017
14-16 November 2017
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

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