IPNI SEAP Staff Publication List



Aye, T.M. 2012.
Pocket Guide - Nutrient Management of Selected Crops in Myanmar.
International Plant Nutrition Institute, Penang, Malaysia.

Jat, M.L., D. Kumar, K. Majumdar, A. Kumar, V. Shahi, T. Satyanarayana, M. Pampolino, N. Gupta, V. Singh, B.S. Dwivedi, V.K. Singh, B.R. Kamboj, H.S. Sidhu and A. Johnston. 2012.
Crop response and economics of phosphorus fertiliser application in rice, wheat and maize in the Indo-Gangetic Plains.
Indian Journal of Fertilisers, Vol 8, page 62-72.
Abstract: Phosphorus (P) is one of the major essential plant nutrients. Physiological processes and yield of cereals are adversely affected in soils deficient in phosphorus. Phosphorus deficiency is widespread in Indian soils and response of cereals to applied P is often spectacular. P use has increased significantly with increasing food grain production in India. Recent increase in P fertiliser cost, however, has raised concerns about the profitability of P application in cereals. Results of on-farm P omission plot experiments conducted across the Indo-Gangetic Plain indicated an average P response of 712, 969 and 853 kg/ha in rice, wheat and maize, respectively. This suggests that skipping P application or blanket reduction in P application rates across a region or the country would adversely affect cereal production in India. Economic assessment based on application rates, nutrient response, cost of phosphate and minimum support price ofthe cereals showed return on investment (Rs/Re) of 2 in all scenarios. A mechanism of optimizing return on investment in P fertiliser in changing fertiliser price scenario and variable crop P response situations was highlighted. In general, a crop response based site specific P management strategy would help in maximizing yield and profitability of major cereals under increasing fertiliser price scenario.

Kumar, A., K. Majumdar, M.L. Jat, M. Pampolino, B.R. Kamboj, D.K. Bishnoi, V. Kumar and A.M. Johnston. 2012.
Evaluation of Nutrient Expert® for Wheat.
Better Crops - South Asia, page 27-29.
Abstract: On-farm nutrient omission trials in Haryana under contrasting tillage and residue retention treatments showed that wheat yield varied across sites. Site-specific nutrient recommendations from Nutrient Expert, a recently developed wheat nutrient decision support tool, increased wheat yields and farmer profits over existing farmer fertilizer practices and generalized recommendations under both tillage scenarios.

IPNI. 2012.
Planters' Diary 2012.
International Plant Nutrition Institute, Penang, Malaysia.

Majumdar, K., A. Kumar, V. Shahi, T. Satyanarayana, M.L. Jat, D. Kumar, M. Pampolino, N. Gupta, V. Singh, B.S. Dwivedi, M.C. Meena, V.K. Singh, B.R. Kamboj, H.S. Sidhu, and A. Johnston. 2012.
Economics of potassium fertiliser application in rice, wheat and maize grown in the Indo-Gangetic Plains.
Indian Journal of Fertilisers, Vol 8, page 44-53.
Abstract: Potassium (K) fertiliser cost has increased considerably over the past three years. The sharp increase in price has raised doubts about the profitability of potassium application in cereals where the Minimum Support Prices (MSP) is low. On-farm K response studies in rice, wheat and maize, spread across the Indo-Gangetic Plains, highlighted that grain yield response to fertiliser K is highly variable and is influenced by soil, crop and management factors. Average yield losses in rice, wheat and maize in farmers' fields due to K-omission were 622, 715 and 700 kg/ha, respectively. This suggests that skipping application of K in the three cereal crops will cause variable yield and economic loss to the farmers of the region and will affect overall cereal production in the country. The return on investment of applied potassium in rice, wheat and maize were Rs. 5.5, 4.4 and 3.2 respectively per rupee invested on K. Economic assessment based on projected cost of K fertiliser and projected MSP of the cereals also showed favourable return on investment for K fertiliser. Considering the high variability in K response, blanket K recommendations would most likely lead to economic loss for farmers due to under or over application in most cases. A site specific potassium management strategy, based on the expected crop response to K at a location, would improve yield and profitability of cereal farming.

Oberthür, T., J. Cock, C.R. Donough, Rahmadsyah, G. Abdurrohim, K. Indrasuara, A. Lubis and T. Dolong. 2012.
Best Management Practices (BMP) in oil palm fertilization for sustainable intensification.
Proceedings of the International Oil Palm Conference, Colombian National Federation of Oil Palm Growers (FEDEPALMA), Colombian Oil Palm Research Center (CENIPALMA), Cartegena, Colombia. Page 1-28.
Abstract: This paper first introduces the general concepts and principles for sustainable nutrient management in oil palm plantation systems:
-- We present the process of yield gap analyses as the base for sustainable intensification of oil palm plantation systems, and assess oil palm nutrition within such a framework.
-- To do so, we review the role of nutrients and nutrient balances in oil palm production systems, an document the importance of fertilization for high yields.
-- Selected management indicators for oil palm nutrition are discussed as they relate to sustainable intensification.
-- Finally, nutritional based best management practices (BMP) are related to the biological aspects of yield formation to clarify how such practices contribute to yield intensification through "yield taking" and "yield making".
In the second part of this paper we illustrate these general concepts and principles with examples and results from BMP projects that the Southeast Program of the International Plant Nutrition Institute manages jointly with partner plantations in Southeast Asia. We demonstrate the success of the intensification approach we developed with results of fresh fruit bunch yield. From our analyses we conclude that:
-- The reduction of yield gaps in oil palm plantations is possible. Better forecasts of the actually available amounts of fruit bunches in the field will be essential to further fine tune harvesting routines.
-- Site yield potential (SYP) is likely not yet reached in the project blocks that provided that data for this analyses. While the best performing blocks achieved very high yields there are limits, set by genetic material, past management and other factors, as to what increase can be obtained in an established plantation with good management.
-- The BMP process has been proven to be a mechanism to improve yields even under sub optimal conditions. In order to further reduce the gap between actual yield and SYP, nursery and immature stages of the crop development must be managed under a BMP concept, and site specific targeting of management practices that account for variability in response to specific BMPs needs to be implemented.

Oberthür, T., C.R. Donough, K. Indrasuara, T. Dolong and G. Abdurrohim. 2012.
Successful intensification of oil palm plantations with best management practices: Impacts on fresh fruit bunch and oil yield.
The Planter, Vol 89, page 185-216.
Proceedings of the International Planters Conference on The Future Direction of the Plantation Business, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 25-26 June 2012.
Abstract: Oil yields achieved in Indonesia and Malaysia continue to fall well below potential levels with average national oil yields seldom exceeding 4 tonnes per hectare. However, all the group level (ca. 150,000 ha). an average oil yield of 6 tonnes per hectare has been reported. this indicates a substantial yield gap.
The yield gap between actual achieved yield and the maximum site yield potential can be apportioned into three parts:
1. Yield Gap 1 arises from inefficiencies during development of a plantation until the end of the immature period;
2. Yield Gap 2 arises from inacccurate assessment of nutrient requirements; and
3. Yield Gap 3 arises from inefficiencies in the management of the mature stand.
Best Management Practices (BMP) are promoted to the industry to reduce these yield gaps through the production of more fresh fruit bunches (FFB). The industry is also pursuing increased oil extraction rate (OER) as a complementary pathway to boost oil output per unit land.
Since 2006, the Southeast Asia Program of the International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI SEAP) has successfully implemented BMP at six sites in major production areas of Indonesia where they are used as a management tool for the intensification of production in mature oil palm plantations.
In this paper, we present the relationships between BMP and oil yield that were derived from a comprehensive data set of results from bunch and oil extraction analyses from three of the six BMP project sites.
The results show that yield gaps 2 and 3 were corrected using BMP, with substantial increases of FFB. It is further demonstrated that while BMP may indeed reduce OER by up to 1 per cent, there are significant increases in total oil ad kernel yields, due to higher FFB and reduced loose fruit losses.
Finally, we discuss the implementation of practices that supports the identification of an optimal intensification strategy, including performance indicators related to optimal harvest practices and OER for increased production of oil and kernels.

Oberthür, T., P. Laderach, J.H.A. Pohlan and J.H. Cock (Editors). 2012.
Specialty coffee: Managing quality.
International Plant Nutrition Institute, Penang, Malaysia.

Pampolino, M., K. Majumdar, M.L. Jat, T. Satyanarayana, A. Kumar, V.B. Shahi, N. Gupta and V. Singh. 2012.
Development and evaluation of Nutrient Expert® for wheat in South Asia.
Better Crops with Plant Food, Vol 9, Issue 3, page 29-31.
Abstract: Nutrient Expert® (NE) for Wheat, a new nutrient decision support tool, is based on the principles of site-specific nutrient management (SSNM) and recommends balanced application of nutrients based on crop requirement. The tool was a joint development of wheat stakeholders in India including representatives from national research and extension system, private industries, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), and International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI). It enables crop advisers to rapidly develop field-specific fertilizer recommendations for wheat using existing site information. Field evaluation showed that the location-specific nutrient recommendations from the tool increased yield and economic benefits of wheat farmers as compared to the existing practices.

Pampolino, M.F., C. Witt, J.M. Pasuquin, A. Johnston and M.J. Fisher. 2012.
Development approach and evaluation of the Nutrient Expert software for nutrient management in cereal crops.
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, Vol 88, page 103-110.
Abstract: Meeting the demand for more food in the next 20-30 years requires intensifying cereal cropping systems and increasing current yields to about 70-80% of the genetic yield potential. A dynamic and robust nutrient management approach such as site-specific nutrient management (SSNM) will be essential to increase yields and optimize profits while maintaining the productivity of these intensive cropping systems. SSNM has increased yield and profit in rice, maize, and wheat in major cropping systems in Asia; but, crop advisors have found it complex and difficult to implement in the field. Nutrient Expert (NE) was developed to provide crop advisors with a simpler and faster way to use SSNM. NE enables crop advisors to develop SSNM recommendations using existing site information. Nutrient Expert for Hybrid Maize (NEHM) increased yield and profit of farmers in Indonesia and the Philippines. In Indonesia, NEHM increased yield by 0.9 t/ha, which increased profit by US$ 270/ha over farmer's fertilizer practice (FFP). Compared with FFP, NEHM recommendations reduced fertilizer P (4 kg/ha), increased fertilizer K (+11 kg/ha), and did not significantly change fertilizer N. In the Philippines, NEHM increased yield by 1.6 t/ha and profit by US$ 379/ha compared with FFP. Compared with FFP, NEHM gave higher rates of all three nutrients (+25 kg N/ha, +4 kg P/ha, and +11 kg K/ha), which substantially increased fertilizer costs (US$ 64/ha) but still increased profit by about six times the additional investment in fertilizer. NE accounts for the important factors affecting site-specific recommendations, which makes it a suitable starting point for developing nutrient management tools to reach more users.

Pasuquin, J.M., N. Prabowo, T. Oberthür, C.R. Donough, M. Hoffmann, Rahmadsyah and A. Lubis. 2012.
Evaluation of a yield prediction model to support yield gap analysis in oil palm.
Poster presented at the Annual Conference, Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 2012.
Abstract: Four equations that predict fresh fruit bunch (FFB) yield based on leaf nutrient analysis (N, P, K, Mg), palm age and growth measurements have been developed from fertilizer trials in North and South Sumatra (Prabowo et. al., 2009). The nutrient equation that predicts the lowest yield indicates the most deficient nutrient. This model was successfully put into practical application on several oil palm fields in Sumatra to identify and evaluate problems of low-yielding fields (Fig. 1). Such a method, if reproducible elsewhere, would be a useful tool in yield gap analysis (Fig. 2) to guide the implementation of best management practices (BMP) for efficient site specific, sustainable nutrient management of mature commercial oil palm blocks.

Ping, H., J. Ji-yun, M.F. Pampolino and A.M. Johnston. 2012.
Approach and decision support system based on crop yield response and agronomic efficiency.
Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer Science, Vol 18, page 499-505.
Abstract: Over and imbalanced fertilization by farmers driven by pursuing high yield results in low fertiliser use efficiency and therefore influences sustainable utilization of farmland. Thus, develop a new tool to better nutrient management and fertilization which is best suitable for China's agriculture is quite urgent. A new approach based on crop yield responses and agronomic efficiency addresses all such concerns. The principles of nutrient management and fertilizer recommendation was based on improved SSNM and QUEFTS model guided nutrient management and integrated consideration of balanced fertilization of all plant nutrients. The nutrient management principles were developed to consolidate the complex and knowledge intensive information into simple deliverable computer software named "Nutrient Expert" enabling local advisors rapidly implements this technology to ensure cost-effectively field specific guidelines for fertilizer recommendations. The software only requires information that can be easily provided by farmers or local expert. The user will get a package guideline on fertilizer management (and more, such as recommended plant density, attainable yield, the right application time suitable for his local condition) that are tailored to his location and locally-available fertilizer sources after answering a set of simple questions. Multiple-site field validation across larger area demonstrated that the easily grasped new approach based on crop yield responses and agronomic efficiency helps in strategizing appropriate management of nutrients leading to better yield and profits, nutrient use efficiency improvement and environmental protection.

Satyanarayana, T., K. Majumdar, M. Pampolino, A.M. Johnston, M.L. Jat, P. Kuchanur, D. Sreelatha, J.C. Sekhar, Y. Kumar, R. Maheswaran, R. Karthikeyan, A. Velayutahm, G. Dheebakaran, S. Vallalkannan, T. Sherene, T.H. Ranjith, D. Shivamurthy, Y.R. Aladakatti, D. Chiplonkar, R. Gupta, D.P. Biradar, S. Jeyaraman and S.G. Patil. 2012.
Nutrient Expert®: A tool to optimise nutrient use and improve productivity of maize.
Better Crops - South Asia, page 18-21.
Abstract: Nutrient Expert® (NE)-based field-specific fertilizer recommendations offered solutions to the farmers of southern India for better nutrient use in maize under the current scenario of escalating fertilizer prices. Results from validation trials, comparing NE-based recommendations over FP and SR in 82 farmer fields of southern India, across varied growing environments with different crop establishment options demonstrated the utility of the tool in improving the yield and profitability of maize farmers in the region.

Satyanarayana, T., K. Majumdar, V. Shahi, A. Kumar, M. Pampolino, M.L. Jat, V.K. Singh, N. Gupta, V. Singh, B.S. Dwivedi, D. Kumar, R.K. Malik, V. Singh, H.S. Sidhu, and A. Johnston. 2012.
Economics of nitrogen fertiliser application in rice, wheat and maize grown in the Indo-Gangetic Plains.
Indian Journal of Fertilisers, Vol 8, page 62-71.
Abstract: Nitrogen (N) is a key factor for cereal production in India. N is predominantly supplied to the plants through fertiliser application. The average response to applied fertiliser N has been declining steadily over the past decades. As a result, farmers are compelled to apply higher doses of fertiliser N to maintain the yields of the preceding years. Considering the increasing demand of N fertiliser in the coming years, wide variability in soil N supplying capacity and wide production gaps in the predominant cereals, the present on-farm study was undertaken in the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP). The objective was to estimate response of cereals (rice, wheat and maize) to N application, the economics and profitability of N application with changing fertiliser price scenario. On-farm results indicated yield loss due to N omission to the tune of 667-3337 kg/ha in rice, 500-4750 kg/ha in wheat and 400- 5160 kg/ha in maize. On the other hand, optimum use of N at observed N response levels, current and projected prices of N fertiliser and minimum support price of rice, wheat and maize had return on investment e" 3 indicating increasing significance of precise N management in cereals in the IGP. Results also suggest that advanced strategies of N management considering the indigenous N supplying capacity of soil, yield response, and agronomic efficiency of N at a given environment may become an important tool for improving farm profitability from N use in IGP.

Shahi, V.B., A. Kumar, N. Gupta, K. Majumdar, M.L. Jat, T. Satyanarayana, M. Pampolino, S. Dutta, H.S. Khurana and A.M. Johnston. 2012.
Economics of fertilizing cereals in the Indo-Gangetic Plains.
Better Crops with Plant Food, Vol 96, Issue 4, page 13-17.
Abstract: On-farm studies in the Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP) clearly indicated the positive response of cereals (rice, wheat, and maize) to NPK fertilization. Economic assessment of data, based on current as well as future fertilizer price and crop value or minimum support price (MSP) scenarios, showed favorable return on investment in N, P, and K fertilizers in the IGP.

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